3D scanning and manufacturing design of an engine piston

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Kötet címe (évfolyam száma)

The main objective of this thesis consists of developing a three-dimensional (3D) model of a piston head using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. Although AutoCAD software is primarily focused on two-dimensional (2D) applications, it was chosen for this thesis because of its ability to generate 3D models as well. After completing the 3D model using the computer-aided design (CAD) software, I traveled to the lab and utilized the 3D scanning equipment to capture the physical piston head. I then performed a comparative analysis of the aforementioned 3D model and the scan results with the aim of identifying any potential discrepancies or inaccuracies. This stage was completed with the help of Mr. Dániel Nemes, who provided invaluable assistance throughout the process. Initial comparisons showed significant differences between the produced and scanned 3D models. Therefore, I optimized the accuracy of the piston head 3D model by optimizing it. Subsequent analysis showed that the error of the improved model was below an acceptable threshold. The third objective of this thesis was to develop a machining process for the piston head using EdgeCAM software. Proficiency in milling and turning machining techniques was achieved by exploring the relevant PDF learning resources available on the official EdgeCAM website and by utilizing instructional videos available on the Internet. During the initial design phase, I realized that the unique composition of the piston head did not allow for the use of only milling or turning methods in the machining process. Therefore, it was decided to use Solidworks software to divide the 3D model of the piston head into different parts. The upper portion of the piston head was manufactured utilizing turning machining techniques. The upper part of the piston head is manufactured by the turning machining process while the lower part of the piston head is manufactured by milling machining process. At the initial stage of the design process, it is vital to determine the appropriate blank for the machined object. Subsequently, fixtures and machine tools must be set up accordingly. The EdgeCAM 3D model is then utilized to determine the specific features to be machined. Finally, the machining design is carried out, including determining the relevant cutting tools, the type of machining (e.g. rough turning, rough grooving, finish grooving) and the specific type of machining based on the feature to be machined. In turning, different operations such as rough turning, rough grooving, finish turning, finish grooving, and cut-off require the adjustment of specific parameters for each operation. Similarly, milling encompasses a variety of machining techniques, including roughing, contour milling, and face milling. The final goal was to optimize the machining process design. I successfully optimized the milling process for the lower part of the piston head on two occasions, reducing the machining time from 51 minutes to 13 minutes the first time and 9 minutes the second time.

engine piston head, Manufacturing process, EdgeCAM