International Journal of Horticultural Science

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  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Optimization of fertilizer use efficiency, soil quality and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) growth with biochar under drip irrigation conditions irrigation conditions
    (2024-07-16) Aleiadeh, H.
    Biochar (BC) is an eco-friendly product characterized with high content of carbon and usually obtained by heating biomass without oxygen. Utilizing BC as organic material to amend the problematic soils and improve plant growth and yield has been proved previously. This study investigated the effect of vetiver grass biochar (VGB) on fertilizer use efficiency, soil quality, and oil palm growth performance. A net house experiment was conducted at the Farm Unit, UiTM Sarawak Branch, between August 2022 and March 2023. A factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five treatments and four replications was devised. Treatments applied were: T0) absolute control; T1) 100% NPK fertilizer; T2) 100% vetiver grass biochar; T3) 50% vetiver grass biochar + 50% NPK fertilizer; and T4) 25% vetiver grass biochar + 75% NPK fertilizer. The BC application significantly improved the fertilizer use efficiency through reducing the rate of fertilizer applied. It also significantly enhanced most soil-measured chemical properties and soil nutrients. The growth performance of oil palm plant was significantly enhanced by BC application in terms of plant height, hump diameter, leaf number, chlorophyll content, and plant biomass. The BC application demonstrated its usefulness in managing soil and cultivating oil palm plant sustainably by reducing the rate of fertilizer applied and improve the fertilizer use efficiency. Based on the output, we suggest that treatment T3 (50% vetiver grass biochar + 50% NPK) can be used to improve the growth performance of oil palm.
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Prevalence of banana diseases and post-harvest losses in Kenya, and biocontrol potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi against Fusarium wiltngi Against Fusarium wilt
    (2024-07-16) Kamore, H. K.; Njeru, E. M.; Nchore, S. B.; Ombori, R. O.; Muthini, J. M.; Kimiti, J.
    The demand for bananas ( Musa spp.), which is ranked as the most important fruit crop in Kenya has been on the rise owing to both their dietary contribution and income generation. Meeting this demand has however been hampered by losses during production or post-harvest. This study assessed banana disease and post-harvest losses in leading producing counties in Kenya namely; Kisii, Nyamira and Embu. The study also assessed the efficacy of Rhizophagus irregularis in controlling Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense . Structured questionnaires were used to collect data on post-harvest losses. Disease scoring tables, charts and photos were used to confirm observed symptoms and hence, disease occurrence and severity. AMF biocontrol efficacy experiment was conducted using tissue culture bananas grown in the greenhouse. The study revealed that most smallholder farmers were unaware of the causes or the prevalence of post-harvest losses. The findings also revealed a significant difference (p<0.05) in the severity of banana diseases across various cultivars from the three counties. The AMF treated bananas showed a significant difference (p<0.05) in plant height, total leaf area and chlorosis in comparison to other treatments. The study also revealed a reduction of Fusarium’s pathogenic effects including chlorosis, reduced leaf surface area and eventual necrosis.
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Effect of rabbit urine foliar spray on the yield and post-harvest quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
    (2024-07-16) Mutua, E. K.; Mwangi, M.; Gaoqiong, L.
    Of all vegetable crops, tomato occupies the second-largest cultivated land after potato. However, its production is often lamed by insufficient nutrient supply and invasion by insect pests. Unlike inorganic fertilizers and synthetic pesticides commonly used, rabbit urine supplies nutrients to the crops, controls insect pests and has low mammalian toxicity. However, the most suitable rabbit urine foliar spray concentration for tomato production is currently unknown. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with six treatments and four blocks to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of rabbit urine foliar spray on the yield and post-harvest quality of tomato. The six treatments used include: five concentrations of rabbit urine (100%, 40%, 25%, 18.2% and 0%) and 0.1% Duduthrin 1.75EC. Results indicated that treatment 18.2% rabbit urine registered the highest marketable yield (129.14 t/ha) in trial 1. In trial 2, treatment 25% rabbit urine recorded the highest marketable yield (165.08 t/ha). These two treatments gave the highest marketable yields due to their sufficient nutrient supply, optimal pest control and zero foliage scorching. Unlike fruit firmness and sugar acid ratio, total soluble solids and titratable acidity increased with increase in rabbit urine concentration. Therefore, a rabbit urine foliar spray concentration of 25% optimally improves yield and post-harvest quality of tomato. More research work can be done to determine the effect of spraying intervals of rabbit urine on the yield and post-harvest quality of tomato.
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Agromorphological and nutritional quality profiles of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) as influenced by cultivar, growing medium and soil amendment source
    (2023-07-20) Oyetunde, O.; Benson, G. A. S.; Oyetunde, A. K.; Olalekan, O. J.; Chukwu, C. U.; Anari, K. O.
    Fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) is popular as food and feed around the world. Sixteen treatments were developed from factorial combinations of three factors: cultivar ( ugu elu and ugu ala ), growing medium (garden soil (GS) and white sand (WS)), and soil amendment source (poultry manure, NPK, supergro and no amendment). A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the agromorphological and nutritional traits of fluted pumpkin obtained from the treatments. Fresh leaves were analyzed for crude protein, crude fibre, crude lipid, total ash, phytate and nitrate concentrations. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and principal component analysis. Mean plots were used to explain the effects of the three factors and profiling was done using the GYT biplot. There were significant (p≤0.05/0.01) mean squares for measured traits, suggesting the possibility of selection among the treatments. Plants in GS consistently out-performed those in WS for shoot weight, leaf length, and number of leaves per plant possibly due to greater availability of nutrients in the GS. Inconsistent patterns observed in the proximate concentrations of pumpkin from the 16 treatments showed the role of interaction among the three factors. Principal component analysis identified some traits as contributors to differences among the treatments which can be basis of selection. Treatments 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 might be useful to improve vegetative yield while 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 could improve nutritional values of the fluted pumpkin.
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Effect of hydroponic and peat-free media in transplant production of Rudbeckia hirta varieties under different photoperiodic lighting and their photosynthetic parameters
    (2021-08-10) Antal, G.; Kurucz, E.; Koncz, K.; Kaszás, L.; Fári, M. G.
    The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of varieties, different light conditions (short day, long day, natural short day with light pollution), and different growing media (perlite, peat-free, peat-based, aeroponics system) on Rudbeckia hirta plant production under controlled conditions (greenhouse). The morphological effects of each treatment (photoperiodic lightings and media) on different Rudbeckia varieties determined at 11 weeks-old ’Napfény’, ’Toto Gold’, ’Autumn Colors’, ’Prairie Sun’ and 16 weeks-old ’Napfény’. Plantlets received 12 hours daylight did not initiate flowers, remained stage of the leaf rosette in case of all varieties. The 14 hours light treatment in the aeroponics system and the same treatment in perlite and control (natural short day with 14 hours light pollution) plantlets had developed inflorescences or flower buds. The inflorescence axis of ‘Napfény’ was appeared at 13 weeks under long-day conditions, with 1.7 (perlite) - 2.7 (aeroponics) flower buds in 16 weeks. ’Toto Gold’, ’Autumn Colors’, ’Prairie Sun’ varieties developed inflorescences at 8 weeks, 14 hours aeroponics system resulted in the most of flower buds (’Toto Gold’: 6.5, ’Autumn Colors’: 3.25,’Prairie Sun’: 4.8 flower buds) at 11 weeks. Long daylight manipulation could be minimized crop times and achieved flowering potted plants at 11 weeks. The peat-based and peat-free media effect was observed on ‘Autumn Colors’. The number of leaves of peat-free ‘Autumn Colors’ transplants (16.8-20.3) was significantly higher than peat-based media (13.5-15.5). Other morphological parameters were not affected by the media treatments.
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Effect of biochar and inorganic fertilizer on the quality of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) in Kenya
    (2024-07-16) Kwizera, E.; Mungai, N. W.; Opiyo, A. M.; Niyokuri, N. A.
    Despite its health benefits, the production and quality of beetroot is still low in Kenya due to the application of non-recommended rates of fertiliser and soil amendment. This research aimed at contributing to the improvement of the beetroot quality in Kenya. It was designed to determine the effects of biochar and NPK (17-17-17) on the quality of beetroot in Kenya. An RCBD factorial experiment was conducted at Egerton University farm, Kenya, for two seasons.  Biochar (0, 5, 10 t/ha) and NPK (0, 200, 300 and 400 kg/ha) were applied together before planting. Data were collected on beetroot diameter, total phenolics, total soluble solids, calcium, iron and phosphorus contents and analysed using SAS statistical software. The co-application of biochar and NPK significantly (p≤0.05) increased the beetroot diameter, iron, calcium, phosphorus, TSS and phenolics content in season two and not in season one. The sole application of biochar showed a significant increase in the iron content of beetroot in season one. However, biochar did not have a significant effect on beetroot diameter, mineral content, TSS and phenolics content of beetroot in season two. The sole application of NPK at 200, 300 and 400 kg/ha significantly (p≤0.05) increased the diameter of beetroot and iron content in both seasons one and two and also significantly improved the calcium and phosphorus content in season two. These NPK levels were not statistically different from each other, but different from the control. It is therefore recommended to apply NPK and biochar for quality beetroot.
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Morphological characterization of shallot (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum) segregating populations obtained from natural-outcrossing in Ethiopial-outcrossing in Ethiopia
    (2024-07-16) Tabor, G.; Mengistu, F. G.; Atinafu, G.
    Shallot is a vegetable and condiment crop widely used in Ethiopia and globally. However, absence of improved and adaptable varieties has been the major cause of low productivity. Narrow genetic base of local shallot germplasm owing to vegetative reproduction of the crop, among others, has been the root cause of low productivity. Nevertheless, some plants within the germplasm were observed bolting and producing viable seeds, presenting an opportunity for genetic diversification. Consequently, a germplasm enhancement program was initiated using these naturally outcrossing genotypes where about eighty-one genotypes were generated. The present study was thus undertaken with the objective of characterizing, classifying, and selecting the eighty-one genotypes for future breeding activities. The genotypes were planted in 9x9 simple lattice design with two replications at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center (Ethiopia) during the dry (irrigated) season of 2021. The genotypes were evaluated for fifteen growth, yield, and quality traits. Significant variations were observed among the genotypes in terms of bulb yield, bulb height and diameter, total soluble solids, bolting percentage, and bulb skin color. Bulb yield of the genotypes ranged from 31.33 t/ha in DZSHT-79-1A to 9.63 t//ha in DZSHT-45-1A-1. DZSHT-51-2 (207.93 g) was the highest yielder per plant whereas DZSHT-065-6/90 (74.51 g) was the lowest yielder. DZSHT-14-2-1/90 had the thickest bulb (44.69 mm) significantly thicker than twenty two genotypes which had bulb diameter ranging from 28.92 mm to 20.29 mm. DZSHT-81-1/90 was a genotype with the longest bulb height (52.33 mm) while DZSHT-147-1C was a genotype with the shortest bulb (33.12 mm). DZSHT-307-1/90 had the highest TSS (16.78°Brix) significantly differing from DZSHT-002/07 which had the lowest TSS (11.17 °Brix). Dry matter of the genotypes ranged from 12.00% to 22.79%. DZSHT-004/07, DZSHT-111-2-1, DZSHT-41-2B and DZSHT-72-2 had DM% greater than 20% which coupled with greater than 14 °Brix could make them suitable for dehydrated shallots. Among the 81 genotypes characterized 4 (4.9%), 7 (8.6%), 13 (16.1%), 28 (34.6%) and 29 (35.8%) were yellow, golden, light red, red and dark red in colour, respectively.  Fifteen of the genotypes had at least 50% bolting plants whereas twenty nine of the genotypes had less than 25% bolting. The results revealed that seven principal components explained approximately 76% of the observed variation. Cluster analysis grouped the genotypes into seven clusters, with the majority falling into three clusters. The study successfully identified genotypes with diverse and important traits and availed both the genotypes and the information for future breeding programs. These genotypes could be used for the development of improved hybrid and open pollinated shallot varieties with higher yield, quality and pest resistance/tolerance attributes.
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Effects of farmyard manure (FYM) and blended NPSB fertilizer rate on growth and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Gewata, Kaffa, southwest Ethiopia
    (2024-07-16) Mengesha, A.; Negash, T.; Abebe , J. K.
    Potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) is an essential crop for nutrition and food security and generating income to small-holder farmers in Ethiopia. Productivity of the crop is, however, limited by poor nutrient management practices and low soil fertility. In most parts of potato growing areas of Ethiopia, soil are deficient in macro (nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur) and micro nutrients (boron) which are known to affect production and productivity of potato. A field trail was accompanied to determine the growing response of potatoes ’Belete varieties’ to combine the treatment of farmyard manure and blended NPSB (nitrogen, phosphorous, sulfur and boron) fertilizer at Gewata, southwest Ethiopia during 2019/2020 main cropping season. The variables are laid out four level of farmyard manure (0, 5, 10 and 15 t/ha) and four level of blended NPSB fertilizer (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg/ha). The treatments were organized in a completely randomized block design with three replications using a 4x4 factorial layout. SAS (version 9.4) was used for data were analyzed. The finding indicate that, combined application of FYM (farmyard manure) with NPSB significantly (p<0.01) affects plant height, average mass of tuber, number of marketable and unmarketable tuber per hill, and tuber yields per plot. It also significantly (p<0.05) influenced days to flowering, maturity, and tuber number per hill. The highest tuber weight (99.33 g), tuber number per hill (9.67), and yield (34.10 kg) per plot were recorded from the mixed fertilization of 15 t FYM with 150 kg/ha NPSB mineral nutrients. As a current finding, it can be stated that the combined use of FYM (15 t/ha) and NPSB blended fertilizer could improve potato growth and yield in the study area (150 kg/ha).
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Effect of straw and plastic mulches on growth and yield of zero tillage potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in the Coastal Khulna Region of Bangladesh
    (2024-07-16) Saimon, A. H.; Mannan, M. A.; Sultana, S.; Mondal, A. R.
    A randomized complete block design experiment was undertaken at the field laboratory of the Agrotechnology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, from November 2021 to March 2022 to ascertain the impact of various mulch treatments on zero tillage potato cultivation. The experiment employed BARI Alu 78 as the planting material and utilized three replications with five distinct mulch treatments. These mulch treatments were identified as follows: Straw mulch (T 1 ), Mulch film (T 2 ), Black polythene (T 3 ), White polythene (T 4 ), and Blue polythene (T 5 ). The metrics that were recorded included the number of sprouts, plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf width, leaf length, number of tubers, tuber length, tuber breadth, number of defective tubers, weight of defective tubers, and tuber weight. Different mulching techniques significantly influenced the overall crop yield and the underlying factors that influenced the results. The mulch film treatment resulted in the highest yield, with a production of 34.76 tons per hectare, followed by black polythene (28.11 tons per hectare), straw mulch (23.74 tons per hectare), white polythene (20.44 tons per hectare), and blue polythene (18.66 tons per hectare). The economic analysis revealed that mulch film had a high benefit cost ratio along with high input and output. Black polythene came in second place when the benefit cost ratio was compared to that of mulch film and the rest of the three treatments. Combining zero tillage with mulch film or black polythene demonstrates significant potential for becoming a cost-effective practice in the coastal region of Bangladesh.
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Interaction impact of drought stress, nutrient-deficient water, and seed-borne pathogen (Alternaria alternata) on germination and vigor of two tomato varietiesination and vigor of two tomato varieties
    (2024-07-16) Y.T.N., Nhi; M., Massimi; L., Radócz
    Tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) is considered one of the leading vegetable plants in the world. This study evaluated the germination and vigor capabilities of ‘Marmande’ and ‘Kecskeméti Jubileum’ varieties under different conditions, including drought stress, nutrient-deficient water, and the effect of seed-borne disease caused by Alternaria alternata when prime and non-prime with salicylic acid. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory in 2023 at Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management Faculty of University of Debrecen. Results indicated that the ‘Kecskeméti Jubileum’ variety exhibited a superior strength to ‘Marmande’ in the seedling’s dry weight, seedling growth rate, and vigor index under nutrient-deficient water. Nevertheless, when applying levels of drought, the ‘Marmande’ variety had a higher viability rate of 62.5% in comparison with another variety, and the germination rate of the two tomato varieties is at 85.5% in 5% concentration but decreased progressively when exposed to a higher drought concentration of 10%. When using 3 ml of salicylic acid during germination stages, the seedling vigor index of ‘Marmande’ shows a greater index at 165 compared to ‘Kecskeméti Jubileum’, just 108 under the infection of Alternaria alternata .  The results of the examination of drought stress, and the effect of Alternaria alternata , one cause of seed-borne pathogens, showed that the percentage germination and vigor ability of the ‘Marmande’ variety performed better than ‘Kecskeméti Jubileum’ under the same conditions.
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Ecological characteristics of natural and culturated species, their comparison in Prunus genus
    (2023-07-20) Surányi, D.
    Plum species are found native throughout the nothern hemisphere, but mostly in the temperate zone. The earliest writings about plum date back some 2000 years (De Candolle, 1894; Cullinan, 1937) puts the age of plums at 2000-4000 years old (Bagenal, 1954). However, the stone core findings suggest a greater past. The question is difficult to conclude because the large number of species of the genus are taxonomically unclear and spread over a wide geographical area. The taxonomic position of stone fruit species and varieties can also be different, especially for Prunus species (Kárpáti, 1967; Terpó, 1974; Raming & Cociu, 1991; Faust & Surányi, 1997; Surányi, 2013).  The study analyzes the average relative ecological value measurement numbers of 75 species, including 120 cultivars, in terms of diversity and similarity. It is novel that, based on the sources, the author used the Ellenberg-Borhid values for the European, Asian, North American and other species, expanding them with transitional subgenera (e.g. Microcerasus ). It was also possible to pay attention to a North African, Central and South American Prunus/Prunophora species. Following the accounting of economic and fruiting values, the species, subspecies, and varieties of the European and Mediterranean regions are the finalists, but species hybrid plums, rootstocks, or Prunus species whose values have not yet been known can play a role. Although the kéköny is a known species, it can become a cultivated fruit species due to the high antioxidant content of the fruit (Hegedűs & Halász, 2019).
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Evaluation of biological control option for Bagrada bug (Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister)) in Kenya
    (2024-07-16) Otieno, N.; Saidi, M.; Opiyo, A.; Kasina, M.; Guantai, M.
    Brassica production is important for economic development of Kenya. Bagrada bug, a significant pest of brassicas, affects their yields and quality, currently posing a threat to both local and commercial vegetable production in Kenya. Biological control of bagrada bug using natural enemies is a cheaper and environmentally friendly method. The study aimed to identify native egg parasitoid species in Kenya. A field prospection survey of the bagrada bug egg parasitoid was done by a series of bagrada bug egg exposure in different parts of the country. Freshly laid bagrada bug eggs in cards were exposed for possible parasitism in the field for three days. The eggs were later carried to the laboratory at NSRC to await hatching. Two egg parasitoid species Trissolcus basalis (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae) and Gryon sp. were identified during the study after a period of bagrada bug egg exposure in Machakos and Kisumu. Two cards with parasitized bagrada bug eggs were recovered from Machakos from which one card yielded four parasitoids of one species Trissolcus basalis and the other yielded two parasitoids Trissolcus basalis and Gryon sp . One card with two parasitized eggs by Trissolcus basalis was recovered from Kisumu, however, there were no parasitoids identified in Nanyuki, Naivasha and Kitengela where bagrada bug is also prevalent. Results showed parasitoid presence in fields with high bug populations compared to areas with few or no Bagrada bug infestations. Conducting trials in both laboratory and field settings is recommended to obtain clear data on the effectiveness of the identified egg parasitoid in managing the bagrada bug population.
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Agrobacterium transformation of Rhodiola sp.: current status and limitations
    (2024-07-16) Javid, A.; György, Zs.
    The study of secondary metabolites has led to the discovery of new drugs for treating human diseases. However, consistent plant supply can be challenging, leading to the use of plant tissue culture techniques such as hairy root culture. Hairy roots have stable genetics, lateral branching, and can produce secondary metabolites, including alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoids. Research on hairy roots as a subject began in the late 19 th century, and for the last four decades, hairy roots have been utilized for producing secondary metabolites and recombinant proteins. This article focuses on Rhodiola species - genus of perennial plants that belongs to the family Crassulaceae - and its potential as a source of secondary metabolites using hairy root culture techniques. Rhodiola sp. is widely distributed throughout the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with several species having significant medicinal properties. The article discusses the possible use of hairy root cultures for the production of Rhodiola secondary metabolites, including salidroside and rosavins, which have demonstrated significant pharmacological activity in various studies. The use of elicitation and genetic engineering techniques to boost secondary metabolite production in Rhodiola hairy roots is also explored. Overall, the article highlights the potential of Rhodiola hairy root cultures as a valuable source of secondary metabolites with medicinal properties. However, despite some studies Rhodiola hairy root induction and culturing still remains highly unexplored.
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Effect of training system on the incidence of Stigmina carpophila and fruit size and weight of European plum (Prunus domestica)
    (2023-07-20) Molnár, B.; Holb, I. J.
    In a two-year study (2017-2018), the aim was to determine the incidence of shot hole disease ( Stigmina carpophila ) on plum cultivar ’Čačanska lepotica’ in four different training systems with tree spacings of 4 x 1.5, 4 x 2, 5 x 2.5 and 6 x 3 m. Fruit size (width and length) and fruit weight were also assessed during harvest of fruit in the four training system. Cultivar ’Čačanska lepotica’ was susceptible to shot hole disease and showed shot hole symptoms in both years and in all training systems. In 2017, the highest disease incidence was observed in the 4 x 1.5 m plot (34% in June and 85% at the end of September). In June and July, the 6 x 3 m training system had the lowest disease incidence. In August and September, the 5 x 2.5 m training system had the smallest incidences of the disease among the training systems. In 2018, except for one assessment date (18 August) the 4 x 1.5 m plot had higher incidences than the other three training systems. Training system and years had almost no effect on fruit size, but there were some differences in fruit weight among the training systems.
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Vegetative and micropropagation potential of Piper guineense (Schumach and Thonn)
    (2023-07-20) SAKPERE, A. M.; Ezenu, V. N.
    The continuous loss of forest plants due to deforestation, and the increasing demand for Piper guineense because of its medicinal and food value, has put a permanent pressure on its population in the wild where it is collected. A method for conservation and mass propagation is therefore required. This research was undertaken to determine the optimal concentration of auxin needed for vegetative propagation and to investigate the potential of Piper guineense for micropropagation. The auxin optimization study of vegetative propagation was based on the use of two-nodal stem cuttings treated with five different concentrations of indole-butyric acid (IBA). Growth parameters such as the number of sprouted, rooted and survived cuttings among others were determined. To investigate the potential of Piper guineense for micropropagation, nodal explants were subjected to different sterilizing treatments using ethanol, NaOCl, mancozeb, streptomycin and Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM). The effect of plant growth regulators (PGRs) was tested on sterilized nodal explants using full strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) hormone-free media alone as control and MS media supplemented with PGRs (BA, NAA and KIN) at different concentrations and combinations. Significant differences were observed across the treatments for all growth parameters measured. However, 2000 ppm IBA significantly (p<0.05) influenced sprouting and rooting of the stem cuttings. Piper guineense explants have deep tissue contaminants, which cannot be eradicated by surface sterilization alone except double sterilization using PPM. On control media, neither shoot nor root response was observed while the highest percentage of induced roots was obtained from explants cultured on MS +1 mg/L BA + 0.25 mg/L NAA. Shoot induction was only achieved when BA was used alone and when subcultured on media supplemented with NAA, which generated roots.
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Genotypic difference of garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars for growth, bulb yield and yield related attributes at Tigray Province, Northern Ethiopia
    (2023-07-20) Biratu, W.; Molla , B.; Abebe , H.; Gebremeskel , H.
    The experiment was conducted at Ofla district from June to October of 2017 and 2018 cropping season to select high yielding and adaptable garlic cultivar(s). Six garlic cultivars namely Chefe, Tsedey, Holeta local, Kuriftu and Bora-4 and one Ofla Local were evaluated. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized block design (RCBD) with three replications. Different growth, phenology, yield and yield related data were collected. Leaf length, leaf width, bulb diameter and length were significantly (p<0.05) influenced by garlic cultivars in both cropping seasons. Bulb weight and number of cloves per bulb were highly significantly (P<0.01) influenced by cultivars in both cropping seasons. Also, marketable yield, unmarketable yield and total yield ha -1 were highly significantly (P<0.01) influenced by cultivars in both seasons. During 2017 and 2018, the highest marketable bulb yield was observed from Ofla Local cultivar with an average value of (8.86 t/ha) and (9.06 t/ha) respectively. During the 2017 cropping year, the maximum and significantly higher total bulb yield of 10.21 t/ha was recorded on the Ofla Local cultivar. Moreover, in 2018, this cultivar provided the maximum total bulb yield of 9.80 t/ha. Therefore, the Ofla Local cultivar showed the greatest performance for growth, yield and yield related attributes. Thus, it is recommended for cultivation in areas having similar agro-ecology. To improve the productivity of garlic, it is important to study and identify the optimum fertilizer level and spacing in the study area.
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Effects of biochar and inorganic fertiliser on the growth and yield of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) in Kenya
    (2023-07-20) Kwizera, E.; Opiyo, A. M.; Mungai, N. W.
    Beetroot ( Beta vulgaris L.) is a root vegetable packed with many nutritional benefits such as minerals and vitamins. Despite its importance in Kenya, farmers get about 30-35 t/ha which is significantly lower than the potential yield (68 t/ha). This is mostly attributed to low soil fertility. This study aimed to determine the response of the beetroot growth and yield on biochar and NPK. A 3×4 factorial experiment was carried out at Egerton University farm over two seasons to test the effects of biochar and NPK (17-17-17), under supplemental irrigation. Biochar (0, 5, 10 t/ha) was combined with NPK (0, 200, 300, 400 kg/ha). The combination of Biochar and NPK increased significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) beetroot growth and yield in two seasons. Treatment B10N400 showed the tallest plants (79.2 cm) at 90 days in season two, while the control resulted in the shortest (27.6 cm). Treatment B10N200 showed the biggest (213.2 cm 2 ) leaves at 90 days. The treatment B5N300 recorded the highest marketable yield (84 t/ha) in season two and the lowest was B0N0 with 2.6 t/ha. Sole application of NPK rates (200, 300, 400 kg/ha) increased significantly the growth and yield of beetroot compared to the control in both seasons. In season one, N300 (300 kg/ha) had 61.9 t/ha of the total yield, the control had the lowest. In season two, 300 kg/ha had 83 t/ha of total yield. Biochar increased beetroot growth and yield in season 2. Treatment B5 recorded the highest marketable yield of 61.2 t/ha, while the control showed the lowest of 53 t/ha.
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Effects of salinity stress induced by hot spring water on tomato growth, yield and fruit quality under hydroponic cultivation in Japan
    (2023-07-20) Musabyisoni, A.; Mutimawurugo, M. C.; Niyokuri, A. N.
    The objective of this research was to test hot spring water as a source of salt to improve tomato quality under the hydroponic system. This research was conducted at Yamagata University, in Japan from February to July 2017. Salt stress was induced using salts of hot spring wastewater collected from Yupoka Onsen (Tsuruoka, Japan). The treatments were EC 2, 4, 8 12, and 16 mS/cm which were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with five replications. Tomato plants were grown at EC 2 until flowering and then subjected to different EC concentrations until harvesting. The data were collected on plant growth parameters and fruit quality. Fruits were harvested at the red stage until the 5 th truss. The results showed that fruits' Soluble Solids Content, organic acid, Nitrate contents and Sugar: Acid ratio increased significantly at EC 16 mS/cm and in the upper trusses compared to EC 2 and in the lower trusses. In contrast, fruit weight significantly decreased at EC 16 mS/cm and in upper trusses. Leaf thickness, size and SPAD, and specific leaf weight significantly declined at EC 16 mS/cm and upper leaves compared to EC 2 and in lower leaves. Plant height started to decline significantly after three weeks of treatment at EC 16 compared to EC 2.
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Evaluation of vermicompost application and stress of dehydration on mullein medicinal plants
    (2023-07-20) Esfahani, R. N.; Khaghani, S.; Mortazaeinezhad, F.; Azizi, A.; Gomarian, M.
    The use of organic fertilizers is one of the suitable solutions in the organic production of medicinal plants due to its good effect in improving soil properties, reducing environmental effects, and better plant growth. To investigate the effect of vermicompost organic fertilizer application and water stress on some morphological and physiological traits of the Mullein medicinal plant, research was conducted at Isfahan Azad University in the form of split plots in the form of a randomized complete block design with 4 replications. The test factors included the application of vermicompost organic fertilizer at three levels of 0, 4, and 8 kg per square meter of soil and water stress at two levels of normal irrigation and irrigation at the time of 50% of the soil's agricultural capacity as the main treatment in research farm conditions. The results of the experiment showed that the application of vermicompost organic fertilizer and water stress improved the morphological and physiological characteristics of the Mullein medicinal plant compared to the control, i.e. no application of organic fertilizers. The results showed that the highest number of secondary branches, number of flowers of the secondary stem, diameter of flowering stem, the diameter of flower, and fresh weight of shoot in the Mullein medicinal plant were obtained by applying vermicompost organic fertilizer at the rate of 4 and 8 kg of soil. The application of vermicompost organic fertilizer at the rate of 8 kg in the soil increased flavonoids compared to the non-use of vermicompost treatment. However, to improve the vegetative growth and increase the reproductive efficiency of the Mullein plant and reduce production costs, the use of vermicompost organic fertilizer is recommended at the rate of 4 and 8 kg of soil, respectively.
  • TételSzabadon hozzáférhető
    Participatory evaluation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) varieties under irrigation conditions at Abergelle district, Eastern Amhara
    (2023-07-20) Mihiretu, A.; Asresu, M.
    Participatory on-farm evaluation of improved tomato varieties (‘Melka salsa’, 'Roma VF' and 'Kochero’) against the local tomato variety was carried out during the 2019/2020 growing season involving six farmers of Abergelle district, Eastern Amhara. The objective of the experiment was to assess the performance of different tomato varieties for the farmers, then to collect their feedback. Based on the actual and farmers’ preference data, the analysis underscores the better performance of improved tomato varieties over local varieties by most yield-related attributes. Average marketable fruit yields of ‘Melka salsa’, ‘Roma VF’, ‘Kochero’, and the local variety were 4.62, 3.88, 3.64, and 3.10 ton ha -1 , respectively. The improved varieties thus had a yield advantage of 72.38%, 37.14%, and 25.72% over the local variety in that order. Among improved tomato varieties, ‘Melka salsa' provided the highest fruit yield on top of owing the highest score of overall preference attributes rank. Scale-wide diffusion of ‘Melka salsa’ tomato variety is therefore suggested for similar and potential agro-ecologies. Biological scientists also should take farmers’ preference attributes and feedback as a backup for future breeding and adaptation studies on tomato varieties.