- TételKorlátozottan hozzáférhető
- TételKorlátozottan hozzáférhetőEvaluation of strip tillage systems in maize production in HungaryStrip tillage is a form of conservation tillage system. It combines the benefits of conventional tillage systems with the soil-protecting advantages of no-tillage. The tillage zone is typically 0.25 to 0.3 m wide and 0.25 to 0.30 m deep. The soil surface between these strips is left undisturbed and the residue from the previous crop remain on the soil surface. The residue-covered area reaches 60-70%. Keeping residue on the surface helps prevent soil structure and reduce water loss from the soil. Strip tillage is most common with crops on 0.76 m row spacing. Maize, sunflower and rapeseed have all been successfully strip tilled in Hungary. Automatic steering with RTK (Real Time Kinematic) is requirement for the strip tillage systems. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of conventional (moldboard ploughing) and conservation (spring strip tillage and ripping) tillage systems on soil conditions and on yield of maize. In order to achieve the objective we examined the tillage effects in the polyfactorial long-term field experiment at the trial site of the University of Debrecen (Hajdúság loess plateau, 47° 30’ N, 21° 36’ E, 121 m elevation) in 2015-2017. The experiment was arranged split-split-plot, on the main plots there were three tillage and two irrigation varieties. The investigated tillage treatments were moldboard ploughing (MP) to a depth of 0.3 m, strip tillage (ST) to a depth of 0.3 m and ripping (RP) to a depth of 0.45 m. Long-term field experiment included three maize hybrids in 2015-2017: Armagnac (FAO 490), Loupiac (FAO 380), Sushi (FAO 340). Soil penetration resistance and soil moisture content were measured by a hand operated static cone penetrometer (Penetronik) combined with moisture sensor until 0.65 m depth. The yield of maize in experimental field was determined by plot harvester. Penetration resistance of the soil in strip tillage (ST) treatment inter-rows were significantly higher than is moldboard ploughing (MB) and ripping (RP) treatment, soil moisture content in ST treatment exceeded the moisture content of the upper soil layer of MP and RP treatments. Reduction of the tillage intensity with no use of inversion (ploughing) tillage shows benefit for saving moisture in the soil profile. Maize yield in conservation ST treatment can reach the yields resulted by conventional MB tillage treatment. It can be concluded, that strip tillage can be alternative way of tillage systems beside the conventional moldboard ploughing on chernozem soils under Hungarian conditions of plant production.
- TételKorlátozottan hozzáférhetőThe Effect of Conventional and Conservation Tillage Systems on Maize YieldIncreasing the agricultural production is indispensable from the aspect of feeding the world’s population which can be provided with increasing amounts of irrigation water and mineral fertilisation. Increasing yields can be achieved with proper nutrient management, but yield safety can only be provided with proper water management. Today, producers can choose from various different maize hybrids. However, it is important to consider the nutrient response of the given hybrid and there is an increasing need for irrigation as a result of climate change. In Hungary, in addition to the conventional (ploughing-based) tillage technology of maize, moisture-saving and conservation (precision, strip-tillage) tillage methods also appeared. The principle of conservation tillage involves maintenance of surface soil cover through retention of crop residues achievable by practicing minimal mechanical soil disturbance. Strip-tillage is a form of conservation tillage systems. It combines the benefits of conventional clean tillage with the soil-protecting advantages of no-tillage systems. Strip-tillage has the potential advantages of providing a suitable seedbed for maize production and maintained yield level with minimum energy expenditures, while leaving surface residues in the inter-row area to reduce soil erosion, water loss from the soil and improved soil structure.
- TételKorlátozottan hozzáférhetőLong-term experiments on chernozem soil in the University of DebrecenThe impact of agrotechnical management practices (nutrient and water supply, crop rotation, crop protection, genotype) on the yields of winter wheat and maize and on the soil water and nutrient cycles was studied in long-term experiments set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary on chernozem soil. The long-term experiments have shown that nitrogen fertilizer rates exceeding the N-optimum of winter wheat resulted in the accumulation of NO3-N in the soil. Winter wheat varieties can be classified into four groups based on their natural nutrient utilization and their fertilizer response. The fertilizer responses of wheat varieties depended on crop year (6.5–8.9 t ha-1 maximum yields in 2011–2015 years) and the genotypes (in 2012 the difference was ~3 t ha-1 among varieties). The optimum N(+PK) doses varied between 30–150 kg ha-1 in different crop years. In maize production fertilization, irrigation and crop rotation have decision role on the yields. The efficiency of fertilization modified by cropyear (in dry 891–1315 kg ha-1, in average 1927–4042 kg ha-1, in rainy cropyear 2051–4473 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively) and crop rotation (in monoculture 1315–4473 kg ha-1, in biculture 924–2727 kg ha-1 and triculture 891–2291 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively). The optimum fertilization could improve the water use efficiency in maize production. Our long-term experiments gave important ecological and agronomic information to guide regional development of sustainable cropping systems.
- TételKorlátozottan hozzáférhetőExamining the relationship between SPAD, LAI and NDVI values in a maize long-term experimentIn Hungary, the preconditions for the use of precision crop production have undergone enormous development over the last five years. RTK coverage is complete in crop production areas. Consultants are increasingly using the vegetation index maps from Landsat and Sentinel satellite data, but measurements with on-site proximal plant sensors are also needed to exclude the influence of the atmosphere. The aim of our studies was to compare the values measured by proximal plant sensors in the polyfactorial split-split-plot long-term maize field experiment at the trial site of the University of Debrecen (Hajdúság loess plato, N 47.554164, E 21.448111, 112 m elevation) in 2017. The soil type of the experimental site is a lowland calcareous chernozem. During these studies, we used Minolta SPAD502 chlorophyll meter, LI-COR LAI-2000 leaf area index meter and Trimble GreenSeeker NDVI measuring instrument. The measurements were performed in V4; V8 and R1 phenological stages. The statistical analyses were carried out in Rstudio. In V4 phenological phase the correlation between the SPAD values and the NDVI values has been found weak (r = 0.18). The correlation between the SPAD and NDVI values was not significant during the V8 phenological phase. During the phenological phase R1, the correlation between the SPAD and NDVI values was moderate (r = 0.32). The SPAD and LAI values measured in phenophase R1 significantly (P <0.001) influenced the measured NDVI values, the relationship between these values was moderate (r = 0.47), SPAD and LAI values had 22.34% influence on the NDVI values. When in the phenophase of maize R1 the variation coefficients of the NDVI measurements were taken into account, they significantly (P <0.001) affected the measured NDVI values by 43.1%