Current Strategies and New Avenues in the Management of Non-Infectious Ocular Inflammation

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Non-infectious ocular inflammation is one of the major cause of blindness worldwide and often heralds the onset of systemic autoimmune pathologies. They are thought to progress through certain sequential phases and many factors such as microbiome disturbances and infections increase the general susceptibility, where in most cases there are genetic predilection (HLA- associated). Many animal models strive to uncover the precise dynamics, although it is believed that T-cells mediate most of the fundamental steps. Current therapeutic approaches are based on the use of corticosteroid and immunosuppressant. However, not all patients respond well to conventional therapy, consequently they are offered biological response modifiers. They are fundamentally more effective, but it is not typically recommended at first, given its high cost and lack of long term pharmacokinetics data. Nevertheless, the remission rate has not change significantly, primarily due to the unique physio-anatomical features of the eye and overall complexity of autoimmune diseases. The emergence of new biopharmaceutical formulation model and the use of nanotechnology in drug delivery hope to greatly improve clinical outcome. Thus, in this paper, my aim is to review conventional therapy, explore novel therapy as well as ocular drug delivery systems in patients with non-infectious ocular inflammation.

Management of Non-Infectious Ocular Inflammation