Pharmacological Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Frenkel, Yulia
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The Thyroid is a magnificent endocrinal organ that have an effect on the whole body. Thyroid cancer is not as common as other solid tumors are, but in its aggressive and metastatic form is very devastating and difficult to treat. Differentiated thyroid cancer can be divided by histological means into papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, which are both derived from follicular cells of the thyroid. Usually the treatment solutions are very simple for non-complicated low grade differentiated thyroid cancer, which almost exclusively resolved by surgery and radioactive iodine (RAI). However, in advanced cases this treatment almost always ineffective. Here, the pharmacological research comes into picture. The knowledge of thyroid physiology and genetic background of the disease is essential for mechanisms understanding on which future therapeutic approaches developed on. Although now days differentiated and dedifferentiated thyroid cancer pharmacological treatment approaches are only at the beginning of the way, it has a great potential in not only improving prognosis and survival rate, but also more importantly may be able to improve life quality. This thesis will present current conventional therapeutic protocols such as surgery, TSH suppression and RAI, conventional cytotoxic and external beam radiation therapy as well as a glimpse into the future of advanced and resistant to conventional therapy dedifferentiated thyroid cancer as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, agents act on Ras pathway, MAPK pathway, monoclonal antibodies etc.
thyroid, follicular, papillary, differentiated thyroid carcinoma, surgery, TSH suppression, RAI, conventional cytotoxic therapy, EBR, dedifferentiated thyroid cancer, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Ras pathway, MAPK pathway, monoclonal antibodies, BARF