Pharmacological Management of Renal Neoplastic Diseases

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Renal Cell Carcinoma is a neoplasm of the kidney. The symptoms of RCC can be very non- specific in nature. These include, painless heamaturia, flank pain, fever and presence of a palpable mass. The possibility of finding RCC on routine tests is not very common. Imaging techniques like ultrasound and CT give the vest chance of visualizing the tumor. It is a common type of cancer among men. There are several risk factors that are very prevalent in our society today that can increase one’s chances of developing RCC. These factors include, smoking, excessive used of NSAID and obesity. Prognosis of RCC is varied based on the degree of severity and metastasis of the tumor. Localized tumors can very well be treated with surgical methods like partial or total nephrectomy. Those tumors have very good prognosis and disease- free survival of the patient. Metastatic RCC, on the other hand, is a lot more complex to treat. A combination of medications can be used to treat metastatic RCC which were highlighted in this thesis. These agents included VEGF inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors to name a few. Due to the continuous advancement of our knowledge of pharmacology and medicine, new treatment regimens emerge with better outcomes.

Reanal Cell Carcinoma, RCC, VEGF Inhibitors, mTOR Inhibitors, Pembrolizumab, Nivolumab, Bevacizumab