Atherosclerosis and its management

Akpeji, Omagu Anne
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Atherosclerosis is a disease with one of the highest burdens faced globally by the health sector with a rise in the risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus (insulin resistance), etc predisposing individuals to the disease. The course of the disease is asymptomatic until there is severe occlusion of vessels by an atheromatous plaque, stenosis of the vessel, or rupture of plaque, and dislodgment of embolus. The symptoms depend on the vessels affected such as the carotid, coronary, or peripheral vessels. Some very effective treatments have been made that target different processes or risk factors involved in atherosclerosis. The major drug family used in the treatment of atherosclerosis are lipid-lowering drugs which include Statins, Ezetimibe, and monoclonal antibodies such as evolocumab and alirocumab. Other drug classes such as antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant drugs are also effectively used in the treatment of atherosclerosis. Some drugs have been made but had limited use, severe adverse effects, or poor efficacy while some had to be rejected during phases of clinical trials.
risk factors of atherosclerosis, pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, treatment of atherosclerosis