Templom mint teológia

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The present thesis “Temple as theology” is not a detailed interpretation of the second temple vision of Ezekiel (Ez 40-48), but it wants to offer some so-called “keys of interpretation” from the field of Biblical theology, history of religion, science of religion, and (Christian) history of liturgy. It is made possible by the engagement and application of the interdisciplinary research results to analyze and present the theological concept of the prophet and/or of the members of the “school” of the prophet. The cult-historical approach emphasizes the intention of the circle of the prophet and of the vision: the principle of the new beginning after the exile should be only the honour and the holiness of God; the new birth of Israel begins with the vision of the Temple of Jerusalem. The all-holiest place is the only geographical and mental centre of the country and of the people of Israel. The intention of the whole vision is the principle of the theological and historical compensation, which defines the future of the ideal Israel. The return from Babylon will not be equal to the return from Egypt and to the establishment of the state and the kingship in Israel. The ideal of Ezekiel and his “school” is rooted very deeply in the social existence of theocracy and equality in post-exodus times. The prophet regards the exile as an end of history, but at the same time as the historical chance of the new beginning. The whole book (excluding chapters 38-39) may have developed in the 6th century B.C., the temple vision cannot be dated after 515 B.C. and one cannot regard it as the criticism of the second Temple or of later epochs. The third chapter “The theology of the Topos” is based on the negation of the utopian concept of the prophet; the consequences of the vision are derived evenly from the reality of the holy place, the Temple (Topos). Without the vision of the Temenos and the holy Temple-district the vision would be fictitious and not relevant. In the further parts we are concerned with the question of the description of the Temple of the vision; this description is a well-considered, consistent narration of a theological program and not a bare architectural characterisation. Afterwards we are dealing with the analysis of the “theological centre” of the vision, where God will live (tent) for ever. Then we turn to the question of the cult-historical approach of the temple and the holy temple district. The well and firmly built temple protects and guarantees the existence of the creation, of the whole cosmos. According to Ez 38.12 the holy mountain of the Temple is the “centre (navel) of the world”, which rests on a firm foundation-stone (rock). After that we are concerned with the general thought of the “centre (navel) of the world” in different cultures and religions. At the end of the third chapter we are analyzing the goal of the temple cult and the liturgical actions at the holy place. In the fourth chapter we present “The theology of the distinction”. The Sacred and the profane, the pure and the impure are not contrasts in the original sense; they are basic categories of the religious and clerical world-understanding. The main mandate of the priests in Israel is the theory of the distinction between the Sacred and the profane, the pure and the impure. The feasts’ calendar (as distinction of the times) represents a transitional phase in the religion-history of Israel. The meaning of the Shabbat was re-valued in this time. The new Israel living around the Temple will be led and governed by the collective of priests called by me Hierocracy (see Ex 19.6). There is a historically explained distinction among the priests in Israel: the sons of Cadoq claim the privileges of the cult. The Levites are regarded only as a second rank ritual assistance. There will be no high priest (any more) in Israel. “The theology of the separation” plays an important role in the vision. The palace of the divinity (= Temple) and the palace of the ruler in Israel, the temple and the city must be strictly separated. In the proximity of the apartment and throne seat of the Lord of Israel there may be no more place for a terrestrial ruler – as it was common in the whole world -, so that power and rule may not be merged in the future. The ruler of Israel will not be called a “king”, but a “prince” of deprived power. He will be only a representative of the people. One can understand this separation as harsh criticism of the “school” of Ezekiel. One can notice here also a salient correction of the “school”: the “prince” will not be the Davidic Messiah. The city is separated from the temple lying in the geographical and mental centre of the country. The city will not surround the holy place of God despite the historical conditions and facts. The name of the city is also changed: “The Lord [will be] there”, the new city cannot be identified with the old one. The country will be given to the 12 tribes of Israel in the sense of “The theology of the compensation”; they are not existing any longer at this time. The principle of the holiness has to rule, too. The country is made fruitful by the water out-gushing from the Temple. The priests and Levites live on the holy land strip and they are protecting the Temple.

Ezékiel, Ezekiel, teológia, theology